W. Deng, Z. Lin, I. Holod, Z. Wang, Y. Xiao and H. Zhang
Nuclear Fusion 52, 043006 (2012)
Linear properties of the reverse shear Alfvén eigenmode (RSAE) in a well-diagnosed DIII-D tokamak experiment (discharge #142111) are studied in gyrokinetic particle simulations. Simulations find that a weakly damped RSAE exists due to toroidal coupling and other geometric effects. The mode is driven unstable by density gradients of fast ions from neutral beam injection. Various damping and driving mechanisms are identified and measured in the simulations. Accurate damping and growth rate calculation requires a non-perturbative, fully self-consistent simulation to calculate the true mode structure. The mode structure has no up–down symmetry mainly due to the radial symmetry breaking by the density gradients of the fast ions, as measured in the experiment by electron cyclotron emission imaging. The RSAE frequency up-sweeping and the mode transition from RSAE to TAE (toroidal Alfvén eigenmode) are in good agreement with the experimental results when the values of the minimum safety factor are scanned in gyrokinetic simulations.
See also: the ALCON code mentioned in Appendix A